Glossary of Terms 

As you read through the history, articles and NFA studies there will be words/terms that you may not be familiar with, we have attempted to assist you in understanding what you are reading.  

Listed below are several of the terms we feel are most important in helping you through the NFA information.

Carpus: wrist or pastern joint 

Radius and ulna: lower long bones of the forelimb Humerus: upper long bone of the forelimb 

Condyle: large articular surface 

Semilunar notch of the ulna (also called the trochlear notch): the area of articulation of the ulna with the humerus Luxated: completely displaced from normal articulation

 Anterior: toward the head 

Posterior: toward the rear 

Caudal: toward the tail 

Proximal: toward the origin or the body 

Distal: away from the origin or body 

Lateral: away from the midline, the side

Medial: toward the midline 

Sex-linked trait: a gene located on the X chromosome 

Autosomal trait: a gene located on a chromosome other than the X or Y chromosomes 

P value: the probability that a result was obtained by chance 

Taken from the Newfoundland Club of America website